Monday, March 24, 2014

How Mispronunciations Make Language Evolve

We all have THAT friend who is quick to get persnickety about every little dropped consonant or wrongly stressed syllable in our speech.  Normally precision is an admirable thing, but it turns out that the development of spoken language is rife with trends and examples that prove that what once were mistakes are now part of standard English.  And the mistakes we make today are pushing the spoken language into a new future, as we speak.  So maybe Dubya WAS right, and future generations will freely discourse about the limits of "newkewlar" energy.

The moral of this story is, if enough people start making the same mistakes in pronunciation that you do, it stops being a mistake and becomes part of this rich and complex being that we know as the English language.

Hunter Communications Original News Source:
The Guardian US

Link to article:

Excerpt: "We've all been there. I still lapse into mis-CHEE-vous if I'm not concentrating. This week some PR whizzes working for a railway station with an unusual name unveiled the results of a survey into frequently garbled words. The station itself is routinely confused with an endocrine gland about the size of a carrot (you can see why they hired PRs). Researchers also found that 340 of the 1000 surveyed said ex-cetera instead of etcetera, while 260 ordered ex-pressos instead of espressos. Prescription came out as perscription or proscription 20% of the time.

The point is malapropisms and mispronunciations are fairly common. The 20-volume Oxford English Dictionary lists 171,476 words as being in common use. But the average person's vocabulary is tens of thousands smaller, and the number of words they use every day smaller still. There are bound to be things we've read or are vaguely familiar with, but not able to pronounce as we are supposed to.
The term "supposed" opens up a whole different debate, of course. Error is the engine of language change, and today's mistake could be tomorrow's vigorously defended norm. There are lots of wonderful examples of alternative pronunciations or missteps that have become standard usage. Here are some of my favourites, complete with fancy technical names.

Words that used to begin with 'n'

Adder, apron and umpire all used to start with an 'n'. Constructions like 'A nadder' or 'Mine napron' were so common the first letter was assumed to be part of the preceding word. Linguists call this kind of thing reanalysis or rebracketing.

When sounds swap around

Wasp used to be waps; bird used to be brid and horse used to be hros. Remember this when the next time you hear someone complaining about aks for ask or nucular for nuclear, or even perscription. It's called metathesis, and it's a very common, perfectly natural process.

When sounds disappear

English spelling can be a pain, but it's also a repository of information about the history of pronunciation. Are we being lazy when we say the name of the third day of the working week? Our ancestors might have thought so. Given that it was once "Woden's day" (named after the Norse god), the 'd' isn't just for decoration, and was pronounced up until relatively recently. Who now says the 't' in Christmas? It must have been there at one point, as the messiah wasn't actually called Chris. These are examples of syncope.

When sounds intrude

Our anatomy can make some changes more likely than others. The simple mechanics of moving from a nasal sound ('m' or 'n') to a non-nasal one can make a consonant pop up in-between. Thunder used to be 'thuner', and empty 'emty'. You can see the same process happening now with words like hamster, which often gets pronounced with an intruding 'p'. This is a type of epenthesis."

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