Tuesday, June 10, 2014

The Endangered Benefits of Writing by Hand

The older generation of the world still remembers when handwriting was a course in the first few years of school.  It seemed like drudgery, executing the shapes of letters over and over until they became more legible with practice. At the time, when every assignment was completed with the aid of physical writing by pen or pencil, it was a necessary skill. 

Now that computer keyboards are used by even toddlers, the skill of cursive and block handwriting seems to be an archaic practice that will inevitably be lost to the march of history.  But new studies in the fields of learning and neurology are proving that forming the letters of speech by hand engages parts of the brain that are left untouched by typng on a keyboard. And students who take notes with actual pen and paper retain the knowledge of the lecture better than those who cut and paste from a written lecture, or even type their own notes on a laptop. Maybe handwriting is not, or at least shouldn't be, an endangered species.

Hunter Communications Original News Source:
The New York Times

Link to article:
What's Lost as Handwriting Fades

Excerpt: "Does handwriting matter?

Not very much, according to many educators. The Common Core standards, which have been adopted in most states, call for teaching legible writing, but only in kindergarten and first grade. After that, the emphasis quickly shifts to proficiency on the keyboard.

But psychologists and neuroscientists say it is far too soon to declare handwriting a relic of the past. New evidence suggests that the links between handwriting and broader educational development run deep.

Children not only learn to read more quickly when they first learn to write by hand, but they also remain better able to generate ideas and retain information. In other words, it’s not just what we write that matters — but how.

'When we write, a unique neural circuit is automatically activated,' said Stanislas Dehaene, a psychologist at the Collège de France in Paris. 'There is a core recognition of the gesture in the written word, a sort of recognition by mental simulation in your brain.'

A 2012 study led by Karin James, a psychologist at Indiana University, lent support to that view. Children who had not yet learned to read and write were presented with a letter or a shape on an index card and asked to reproduce it in one of three ways: trace the image on a page with a dotted outline, draw it on a blank white sheet, or type it on a computer. They were then placed in a brain scanner and shown the image again.

The researchers found that the initial duplication process mattered a great deal. When children had drawn a letter freehand, they exhibited increased activity in three areas of the brain that are activated in adults when they read and write: the left fusiform gyrus, the inferior frontal gyrus and the posterior parietal cortex.

By contrast, children who typed or traced the letter or shape showed no such effect. The activation was significantly weaker.

Dr. James attributes the differences to the messiness inherent in free-form handwriting: Not only must we first plan and execute the action in a way that is not required when we have a traceable outline, but we are also likely to produce a result that is highly variable."

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